## Very fractional geometric progressions with an integer ratio

The geometric progression 1/3, 2/3, 4/3, 8/3, 16/3,… is notable for being dyadic (ratio 2) and staying away from integers as much as possible (distance 1/3 between this progression and the set of integers; no other dyadic progression stays further away from integers). This property is occasionally useful: by taking the union of the dyadic partition of an interval with its shift by 1/3, one gets a system of intervals that comfortably covers every point: for every point x and every (small) radius r there is an interval of size r, in which x is near the middle.

It’s easy to see that for any real number x, the distance between the progression {x, 2x, 4x, 8x, …} and the set of integers cannot be greater than 1/3. Indeed, since the integer part of x does not matter, it suffices to consider x between 0 and 1. The values between 0 and 1/3 lose immediately; the values between 1/3 and 1/2 lose after being multiplied by 2. And since x and 1-x yield the same distance, we are done.

Let’s find the most fractional progressions with other integer ratios r. When r is odd, the solution is obvious: starting with 1/2 keeps all the terms at half-integers, so the distance 1/2 is achieved. When r is even, say r = 2k, the best starting value is x = k/(2k+1), which achieves the distance x since rx = k-x. The values between 0 and k/(2k+1) are obviously worse, and those between k/(2k+1) and 1/2 become worse after being multiplied by r: they are mapped to the interval between k-x and k.

The problem is solved! But what if… x is irrational?

Returning to ratio r=2, it is clear that 1/3 is no longer attainable. The base-2 expansion of x cannot be 010101… as that would be periodic. So it must contain either 00 or 11 somewhere. Either of those will bring a dyadic multiple of x within distance less than 0.001111… (base 2) of an integer, that is distance 1/4.

The goal is to construct x so that its binary expansion is as balanced between 0 and 1 as possible, but without being periodic. The Thue-Morse constant does exactly this. It’s constructed by starting with 0 and then adding the complement of the sequence constructed so far: x = .0 1 10 1001 10010110 … which is approximately 0.412. The closest the dyadic geometric progression starting with x comes to an integer is 2x, which has distance about 0.175. The Wikipedia article links to the survey The ubiquitous Prouhet-Thue-Morse sequence by Allouche and Shallit, in which Corollary 2 implies that no other irrational number has a dyadic progression with a greater distance from integers, provided that this distance is attained. I have not been able to sort out the case in which the distance from a progression to the integers is not attained, but it seems very likely that Thue-Morse remains on top.

What about other ratios? When the ratio r is even, the situation is essentially the same as for r=2, for the following reason. In base r there are two digits nearest (r-1)/2, for example 4 and 5 in base 10. Using these digits in the Thue-Morse sequence, we get a strong candidate for the most fractional progression with ratio r: for example, 0.455454455445… in base 10, with the distance of about 0.445. Using any other digit loses the game at once: for example, having 3 in the decimal expansion implies that some multiple of 10 is within less than 0.39999… =  0.4 of an integer.

When the ratio is odd, there are three digits that could conceivably be used in the extremal x: namely, (r-1)/2 and its two neighbors. If the central digit (r-1)/2 is never used, we are back to the Thue-Morse pattern, such as  x = 0.0220200220020220… in base 3 (an element of the standard Cantor set, by the way). But this is an unspectacular achievement, with the distance of about 0.0852. One can do better by starting with 1/2 = 0.1111111… and sprinkling this ternary expansions with 0s or 2s in some aperiodic way, doing so very infrequently. By making the runs of 1s extremely long, we get the distance arbitrarily close to 1 – 0.2111111… base 3, which is simply 1/2 – 1/3 = 1/6.

So it seems that for irrational geometric progressions with an odd ratio r, the distance to integers can be arbitrarily close to the number 1/2 – 1/r, but there is no progression achieving this value.

## Autogenerated numbers

An integer is automorphic if its square ends with that integer, like 762 = 5776. This notion is clearly base-dependent. Ignoring trivial 0 and 1, in base 10 there are two such numbers for any number of digits; they comprise two infinite sequences that can be thought of informally as “infinite” solutions of x2 = x, and formally as solutions of this equation in the ring of 10-adic numbers. They are …56259918212890625 and …740081787109376, both recorded in OEIS, as Wolfram MathWorld points out.

There is a difference between these two sequences. The former naturally grows from the single digit 5, by repeatedly squaring and keeping one more digit than we had: 52 = 25,  252 = 625, 6252= 390625, 06252 = 390625, 906252 = 8212890625, … (One should not get greedy and keep all the digits after squaring: for example, the leading 3 in 390625 is not the digit we want.)  The process described above does not work for 6, because 62 = 36 rather than 76. For the lack of a better term, I’ll call the infinite numbers such as …56259918212890625 autogenerated.

According to Wikipedia, the number of b-adic solutions of x2 = x is 2d where d is the number of distinct prime factors of b. (Another way to put it: there are as many solutions as square-free divisors of the base.) Two of the solutions are trivial: 0 and 1. So, infinite automorphic numbers exist in every base that is not a prime power, and only in those.

Autogenerated numbers are rarer. For example, there are none in base 12. Indeed, the two viable seed digits are 4 and 9: in base 12, 42 is 14 and 92 is 69. But 14 is not automorphic: 142 = 194. With 69 we get a little further: 692 = 3969. But then 969 is not automorphic, and the process stops.

Computer search suggests that autogenerated numbers exist if and only if the base is 2 mod 4 (and is not 2). Furthermore, there is exactly one autogenerated number for each such base, and its seed is half the base. Some examples, with 20 digits shown in each base:

• … 21314 15515 22213 50213 in base 6
• … 92256 25991 82128 90625 in base 10
• … 8676a 8cba5 7337a a0c37 in base 14
• … aea80 1g4c9 68da4 e1249 in base 18
• … 179aa 1f0e7 igdi8 d185b in base 22
• … b9ofn odpbn 31mm3 h1g6d in base 26
• … f46rg 1jirj r6f3f e1q7f in base 30
• … g2khh vlas5 k7h4h i248h in base 34

I don’t have a proof of the “2 mod 4” claim, but it may well have a proof somewhere already… According to Dave Richeson, the autogenerating property of 5 in base 10 was discussed in a blog post by Foxmaths!, but the blog is private now. It is also stated in their OEIS article as “a(n+1) = a(n)^2 mod 10^(n+1). – Eric M. Schmidt, Jul 28 2012”.